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Quality Requirements

Desirable Biological Variation Database specifications

Updated for 2014! Desirable Specifications for imprecision, inaccuracy, and total allowable error,  calculated from data on within-subject and between-subject biologic variation. This database is updated and compiled by Dr. Carmen Ricos and colleagues. We are honored to be able to host this database.

Desirable Specifications for Total Error, Imprecision, and Bias, derived from intra- and inter-individual biologic variation

This most recent and extensive listing of biologic goals has been provided by Ricos C, Alvarez V, Cava F, Garcia-Lario JV, Hernandez A, Jimenez CV, Minchinela J, Perich C, Simon M. "Current databases on biologic variation: pros, cons and progress." Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1999;59:491-500. This database was most recently updated in 2014.

Annex I, Part I: Within-subject and between-subject CV values of analytes and Desirable Analytical Quality Specifications for imprecision, bias and total error

11-Desoxycortisol through a-Fetoprotein
Albumin through CA 549 antigen
Calcium through Cystine
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate through Hydroxlproline

Immunoglobulin A through Lycopenene
Magnesium through Oxalate, output
pCO2 through Rheumatoid factor
SCC antigen through Zinc

See The Reference List
See The References
See The original Guest Essay

Note on abbreviations:
CVw = within-subject biologic variation
CVg = between-subject biologic variation
I = desirable specification for imprecision
B = desirable specification for inaccuracy
TE = desirable specification for allowable total error


 

Analyte Number of Papers

Biological
Variation
Desirable
specification
CVw CVg I(%) B(%) TE(%)
S- 11-Desoxycortisol 2 21.3 31.5 10.7 9.5 27.1
S- 17-Hydroxyprogesterone 2 19.6 50.4 9.8 13.5 29.7
U- 4-hydroxy-3-methoximandelate (VMA) 1 22.2 47.0 11.1 13.0 31.3
S- 5' Nucleotidase 2 23.2 19.9 11.6 7.6 26.8
U- 5'-Hydroxyindolacetate, concentration 1 20.3 33.2 10.2 9.7 26.5
S- α1-Acid Glycoprotein 3
11.3 24.9 5.7 6.8 16.2
S- α1-Antichymotrypsin 1 13.5 18.3 6.8 5.7 16.8
S- α1-Antitrypsin 3 5.9 16.3 3.0 4.3 9.2
S- α1-Globulins 2
11.4 22.6 5.7 6.3 15.7
U- α1-Microglobulin, concentration, first morning 1
33.0 58.0 16.5 16.7 43.9
P- α2-Antiplasmin 1
6.2 --- 3.1 --- ---
S- α2-Globulins 2
10.3 12.7 5.2 4.1 12.6
S- α2-Macroglobulin 4
3.4 18.7 1.7 4.75 7.56
U- α2-Microglobulin output, first morning 1
29.0 32.0 14.5 10.8 34.7
P- α-aminobutryic acid 1
24.7 32.3 12.4 10.2 30.5
S- α-Amylase 7
8.7 28.3 4.4 7.4 14.6
S- α-Amylase (pancreatic) 2 11.7 29.9 5.9 8.0 17.7
U- α-Amylase (pancreatic) 2
69.5 105.0 34.75 31.48 88.82
U- α-Amylase concentration, random 1
94.0 46.0 47.0 26.2 103.7
P- α-Carotene 1
24.0 65.0 12.0 17.3 37.1
S- α-Carotene 1
48.0 65.0 24.0 20.2 59.8
S- α-Fetoprotein(non hepatic carcinoma) 2
12.2 45.6 6.1 11.8 21.9
S- α-Tocopherol 3 13.8 15.0 6.9 5.1 16.5
S- Acid phosphatase 2 8.9 8.0 4.5 3.0 10.3
S- Acid phosphatase tartrate-resistant (TR-ACP) 2 8.0 13.3 4.0 3.9 10.5
S- Acid phosphatase prostatic activity (PAP) 1 33.8 --- 16.9 --- ---
P- Activated partial thromboplastine time 3 2.7 8.6 1.4 2.3 4.5
P- Adiponectin 1 18.8 51.2 9.4 13.6 29.1
S- Adenosine deaminase (ADA) 1 11.7 25.5 5.9 7.0 16.7
P- Alanine 1 14.7 55.8 7.4 14.4 26.6
S- Alanine aminopeptidase 1 4.1 --- 2.1 --- ---
S- Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 9 19.40 41.6 9.7 11.48 27.48

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Analyte Number of papers

Biological
Variation

Desirable
specification
CVw CVg I(%) B(%) TE(%)
S- Albumin 24 3.2 4.75 1.6 1.43 4.07
U- Albumin, concentration, first morning 3 36.0 55.0 18.0 16.4 46.1
U- Albumin, output, night urine 3 29.5 58.0 14.8 16.3 40.6
S- Albumin, glycated 3 5.2 10.3 2.6 2.9 7.2
S- Aldosterone 2 29.4 40.1 14.7 12.4 36.7
U- Aldosterone 1 39.4 40.1 19.7 14.05 46.56
S- Alkaline phosphatase 22 6.45 26.1 3.23 6.72 12.04
S- Alkaline phosphatase, bone 4 6.2 37.4 3.1 9.5 14.6
S- Alkaline phosphatase, liver 1 10.0 27.0 5.0 7.2 15.4
S- Alkaline phosphatase, placental 1 19.1 --- 9.6 --- ---
U- Ammonia, output, 24h 1 24.7 27.3 12.4 9.2 29.6
S- Amyloid A 1 25.0 61.0 12.5 16.5 37.1
S- Androstendione 2 15.8 38.8 7.9 10.47 23.51
S- Anion gap 9.5 10.1 4.8 3.5 11.3
P- Antithrombin III 4 5.2 15.3 2.6 4.0 8.3
S- Apolipoprotein A1 11 6.5 13.4 3.3 3.7 9.1
S- Apolipoprotein B 9 6.9 22.8 3.5 6.0 11.6
P- Arginine 1 19.3 34.1 9.7 9.8 25.7
S- Arilestearase activity, non inhibited 1 3.8 37.2 1.9 9.3 12.5
P- Ascorbate (Vitamin C) 1 20.0 21.0 10.0 7.3 23.8
S- Ascorbate (Vitamin C) 3 26.0 31.0 13.0 10.1 31.6
P- Asparagine 1 12.3 28.0 6.2 7.6 17.8
S- Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 13 12.3 23.1 6.15 6.54 16.69
P- Aspartic acid 1 31.2 55.1 15.6 15.8 41.6
S- β-2-Microglobulin 1 5.9 15.5 3.0 4.1 9.0
P- β-Carotene 1 18.0 48.0 9.0 12.8 27.7
S- β-Carotene 4 36.0 39.7 18.0 13.4 43.1
S- β-Cryptoxantin 1 36.7 --- 18.4 --- ---
S- β-Globulins 2 10.1 9.1 5.1 3.4 11.7
B- Base excess 1 76.4 43.2 38.2 21.9 85.0
S- Basophile, count 3 28.0 54.8 14.0 15.4 38.5
S- Bilirubin total 11 21.8 28.4 10.90 8.95 26.94
S- Bilirubin conjugated 2 36.8 43.2 18.4 14.2 44.5
P- C Protein 1 5.6 55.2 2.9 13.9 18.7
S- C reactive protein 3 42.2 76.3 21.1 21.8 56.6
S- C reactive protein - high sensitivity 1 49.70 89.23 24.85 25.53 66.54
S- C3 Complement 2 5.2 15.6 2.6 4.1 8.4
S- C4 Complement 2 8.9 33.4 4.5 8.6 16.0
S- CA 125 antigen 4 24.7 54.6 12.4 15.0 35.4
S- CA 15.3 antigen 5 6.1 62.9 3.1 15.8 20.8
S- CA 19.9 antigen 2 16.0 130.5 7.98 32.87 46.03
S- CA 549 antigen 1 9.1 33.4 4.6 8.7 16.2

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Analyte Number of papers

Biological
Variation

Desirable
specification
CVw CVg I(%) B(%) TE(%)
S- Calcium 24 2.1 2.5 1.05 0.82 2.55
S- Calcium, complexed 1 5.3 4.5 2.7 1.7 6.1
U- Calcium, concentration, 24h 4 27.5 36.6 13.8 11.4 34.1
S- Calcium, ionized 2 1.7 1.9 0.9 0.6 2.0
U- Calcium, output, 24h 4 26.2 27.0 13.1 9.4 31.0
S- Calcium, protein bound 1 4.1 6.1 2.1 1.8 5.2
S- Calcium, ultrafiltrable 1 2.2 2.7 1.1 0.9 2.7
S- Carbohydrate deficient transferrin 1 7.1 38.7 3.6 9.8 15.7
B- CO2, total 1 4.0 4.8 2.0 1.56 4.86
S- Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) 10 12.7 55.6 6.4 14.3 24.7
S- Carnitine, Acyl-free 1 11.35 24.3 5.68 6.71 16.07
S- Carnitine, free 1 8.05 16.65 4.03 4.62 11.26
S- Carnitine, total 1 8.85 11.80 4.43 3.69 10.99
S- Ceruloplasmin (ferroxidase) 2 5.8 11.1 2.9 3.1 7.9
S- Chloride 19 1.2 1.5 0.6 0.5 1.5
S- Cholesterol 46 5.95 15.3 2.98 4.1 9.01
S- Cholinesterase, concentration 2 7.1 --- 3.6 --- ---
S- Cholinesterase, activity 3 6.1 18.2 3.1 4.8 9.8
P- Chromogranin A 1 12.8 26.3 6.4 7.3 17.9
P- Citrulline 1 21.4 43.9 10.7 12.2 29.9
S- Collagen type I C propeptide (PICP) 3 7.8 26.7 3.9 7.0 13.4
S- Collagen type I N propeptide (PINP) 3 7.4 57.3 3.7 14.4 20.5
S- Collagen type III N propeptide (PIIINP) 1 13.6 87.2 6.8 22.1 33.3
U- Color, first morning 1 30.9 47.4 15.5 14.1 39.6
P- Copper 3 8.0 19.0 4.0 5.2 11.8
S- Copper 2 4.7 13.6 2.35 3.6 7.47
P- Cortisol 1 21.7 46.2 10.85 12.76 30.66
S- Cortisol 3 15.2 38.1 7.6 10.26 22.8
S- C Peptide 3 16.6 23.2 8.3 7.1 20.8
S- Creatine kinase (CK) 9 22.8 40.0 11.4 11.5 30.3
S- Creatine kinase MB, % 1 6.9 48.2 3.5 10.8 16.5
S- Creatine kinase MB, activity 4 19.7 24.3 9.9 7.8 24.1
S- Creatine kinase MB, mass 1 18.4 61.2 9.2 14.88 30.06
S- Creatinine 28 5.95 14.7 2.98 3.96 8.87
U- Creatinine, concentration, 24h 8 24.0 24.5 12.0 8.6 28.4
U- Creatinine, concentration, first morning 8 23.2 25.7 11.6 8.7 27.8
U- Creatinine, concentration, random 8 36.3 32.4 18.2 12.2 42.1
U- Creatinine, output, 24h 8 11.0 23.0 5.5 6.4 15.4
S- C-Terminal telopeptide type I collagen (CTY I) 5 10.85 30.6 5.43 8.12 15.45
S- Cyfra 21.1 Antigen 2 22.2 31.1 11.1 9.6 27.9
P- Cystatin C 1 5.5 --- 2.8 --- ---
S- Cystatin C 4 5.0 13.0 2.5 3.48 7.61
P- Cysteine 1 5.9 12.3 3.0 3.4 8.3
P- Cystine 1 38.3 48.5 19.2 15.4 47.0

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Analyte Number of Papers

Biological
Variation

Desirable
specification
CVw CVg I(%) B(%) TE(%)
S- D-Dimer (MoM) 1 23.3 26.5 11.65 8.82 28.04
S- Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) 3 6.35 30.70 3.188 7.84 13.08
U- Deoxypyridinoline/creatinine, 24h 2 16.0 30.7 8.0 8.7 21.9
U- Deoxypyridinoline/creatinine, first morning 2 13.8 34.6 6.9 9.3 20.7
U- Deoxipyridinoline/minute, first morning 2 15.4 30.3 7.7 8.5 21.2
P- Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (ACE) 2 8.2 14.5 4.1 4.2 10.9
S- Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (ACE) 1 12.5 27.7 6.3 7.6 17.9
P- Elastase 1 12.4 15.1 6.2 4.88 15.11
B- Eosinophils, count 3 21.0 76.4 10.5 19.8 37.1
(B)Plat- Epinephrine 1 25.3 --- 12.7 --- ---
P- Epinephrine 1 48.3 --- 24.2 --- ---
B- Erythrocytes, count 7 3.2 6.3 1.6 1.7 4.4
B- Erythrocyte distribution wide 3.5 5.7 1.8 1.7 4.6
U- Estradiol 1 30.4 --- 15.2 --- ---
S- Estradiol 5 22.5 24.4 11.25 8.3 26.86
S- Estradiol, free 1 22.8 --- 11.40 --- ---
U- Estradiol, free 1 38.6 --- 19.3 --- ---
P- Factor V coagulation 1 3.6 --- 1.8 --- ---
P- Factor VII coagulation 2 6.8 19.4 3.4 5.1 10.7
P- Factor VIII coagulation 2 4.8 19.1 2.4 4.9 8.9
P- Factor X coagulation 1 5.9 --- 3.0 --- ---
S- Ferritin 6 14.2 15.0 7.1 5.2 16.9
P- Fibrinogen 5 10.7 15.8 5.4 4.8 13.6
(B)Erthry- Folate 1 12.0 66.0 6.0 16.8 26.7
S- Folate 1 24.0 73.0 12.0 19.2 39.0
S- Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) 5 11.0 47.2 5.5 12.12 21.19
S- Fructosamine 3 3.4 5.9 1.7 1.7 4.5
S- Galactosyl hydroxylysine 1 11.8 25.8 5.9 7.1 16.8
P- γ-Fibrinogen 1 14.1 27.25 7.05 7.67 19.3
S- γ-Globulins 2 14.6 12.3 7.3 4.8 16.8
S- γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) 10 13.4 42.15 6.7 11.06 22.11
S- Globulins, total 1 5.5 12.9 2.8 3.5 8.0
P- Glucose 1 4.5 5.8 2.3 1.8 5.5
S- Glucose 15 5.6 7.5 2.8 2.34 6.96
(B)Erythr- Glucose-6-phosphate-1-dehydrogenase (G6PDH) 1 32.8 31.8 16.4 11.4 38.5
B - spot Glucose-6-phosphate-1-dehydrogenase (G6PDH) 1 7.3 10.3 3.7 3.2 9.2
P- Glutamic acid 1 46.4 79.9 23.2 23.1 61.4
P- Glutamine 1 12.1 22.0 6.1 6.3 16.3
S- Glutathion peroxidase 1 7.2 21.7 3.6 5.7 11.7
P- Glycine 1 11.8 40.3 5.9 10.5 20.2
P- Haptoglobin 1 20.0 27.9 10.0 8.6 25.1
S- Haptoglobin 3 20.4 36.4 10.2 10.4 27.3
S- HDL cholesterol 25 7.3 21.2 3.65 5.61 11.63
S- HDL 1 cholesterol 1 5.5 27.2 2.8 6.9 11.5
S- HDL 2 cholesterol 6 15.7 40.7 7.9 10.9 23.9
S- HDL 3 cholesterol 6 7.0 14.3 3.5 4.0 9.8
B- Hematocrit 11 2.7 6.41 1.35 1.74 3.97
B- Hemoglobin 13 2.85 6.8 1.43 1.84 4.19
B- Hemoglobin A1 C 8 1.9 5.7 0.9 1.5 3.0
B- Hemoglobin A2 1 0.7 7.7 0.35 1.93 2.51
P- Histidine 1 9.7 27.2 4.9 7.2 15.2
P- Homocysteine 3 8.3 33.5 4.15 8.63 15.48
S- Hyaluronic acid 1 62.00 --- 31.00 --- ---
S- Hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1 6.6 --- 3.3 --- ---
P- Hydroxyproline 1 34.5 56.7 17.3 16.6 45.1
U- Hydroxyproline/minute, first morning 1 36.1 38.8 18.1 13.2 43.0
U- Hydroxyproline/minute, second void 1 40.5 32.9 20.3 13.0 46.5

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Analyte Number of papers

Biological
Variation

Desirable
specification
CVw CVg I(%) B(%) TE(%)
S- Immunoglobulin A 7 5.4 35.9 2.7 9.1 13.5
S- Immunoglobulin G 6 4.5 16.5 2.3 4.3 8.0
S- Immunoglobulin M 5 5.9 47.3 3.0 11.9 16.8
S- Immunoglobulins κ chains 3 4.8 15.3 2.4 4.0 8.0
S- Immunoglobulins λ chains 3 4.8 18.0 2.4 4.7 8.6
S- Inhibin B 1 10.0 25.0 5 6.73 14.98
S- Insulin 4 21.1 58.3 10.6 15.5 32.9
S- Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) 2 14.6 45.4 7.3 11.9 24.0
S- Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) 1 10.1 63.9 5.1 16.2 24.5
S- Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) 1 1.9 21.0 1.0 5.3 6.8
(B)Leuc- Interferon receptor 1 14.0 20.0 7.0 6.1 17.7
S- Interleukin 1-β 1 30.0 36.0 15.0 11.7 36.5
S- Interleukin-8 1 24.0 31.0 12.0 9.8 29.6
S- Iron 11 26.5 23.2 13.3 8.8 30.7
P- Isoleucine 1 15.5 45.5 7.8 12.0 24.8
S- Kallicrein 6 1 11.80 27.6 5.9 7.5 17.24
B- Lactate 1 27.2 16.7 13.6 8.0 30.4
S- Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) 11 8.6 14.7 4.3 4.3 11.4
S- Lactate dehydrogenase 1 isoform (LDH1) 2 2.3 8.3 1.2 2.2 4.1
S- Lactate dehydrogenase 2 isoform (LDH2) 1 3.3 2.4 1.7 1.0 3.7
S- Lactate dehydrogenase 3 isoform (LDH3) 1 2.8 3.8 1.4 1.2 3.5
S- Lactate dehydrogenase 4 isoform (LDH4) 1 5.9 5.3 3.0 2.0 6.9
S- Lactate dehydrogenase 5 isoform (LDH5) 1 8.0 9.6 4.0 3.1 9.7
P- Lactoferrin 1 11.8 23.7 5.9 6.6 16.4
S- LDL Cholesterol 6 7.8 20.4 3.9 5.46 11.9
P- LDL Cholesterol (oxidized) 1 21.0 50.0 10.5 13.6 30.9
S- LDL Cholesterol, small dense 1 9.1 20.0 4.55 5.49 13.0
S- LDL receptor mRNA 1 21.5 13.6 10.8 6.4 24.1
P- Leucine 1 14.8 44.0 7.4 11.6 23.8
B- Leukocytes count 8 11.4 21.3 5.73 6.05 15.49
S- Lipase 3 32.2 31.8 16.1 11.31 37.88
S- Lipoprotein (a) 3 20.8 18.1 10.4 6.9 24.1
P- Lutein 1 13.0 21.0 6.5 6.2 16.9
S- Lutein 1 23.7 --- 11.9 --- ---
S- Luteinizing hormone (LH) 5 23.0 27.4 11.5 8.94 27.92
P- Lycopene 1 22.0 33.0 11.0 9.9 28.1
S- Lycopene 2 40.1 33.0 20.1 13.0 ---
B- Lymphocytes, count 1 10.2 35.3 5.1 9.19 17.6
B- Lymphocytes CD4 5 25.0 --- 12.5 --- ---
P- Lysine 1 11.5 38.2 5.8 10.0 19.5

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Analyte Number of Papers

Biological
Variation

Desirable
specification
CVw CVg I(%) B(%) TE(%)
(B)Erythr- Magnesium 2 5.6 11.3 2.8 3.2 7.8
(B)Leuc- Magnesium 1 18.5 12.4 9.25 5.57 20.83
(B)Mon - Magnesium 1 18.1 20.3 9.1 6.8 21.7
S- Magnesium 9 3.6 6.4 1.8 1.8 4.8
U- Magnesium, ionized 1 1.9 5.1 1.0 1.4 2.9
U- Magnesium, output, 24h 2 38.3 37.6 19.2 13.4 45.0
(B)Erythr- Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) 4 1.4 5.2 0.7 1.35 2.5
(B)Erythr- Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) 5 1.06 1.2 0.53 0.4 1.27
(B)Erythr- Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) 7 1.4 4.85 0.7 1.26 2.42
(B)Plat- Mean platelet volume (MPV) 3 4.3 8.1 2.15 2.29 5.84
P- Metionine 1 14.7 43.4 7.4 11.5 23.6
B- Monocytes, count 3 17.8 49.8 8.9 13.2 27.9
S- Myeloperoxidase 1 36.0 30.0 18.0 11.7 41.4
S- Myoglobin 2 13.9 29.6 7.0 8.2 19.6
U- N-Acetyl Glucosaminidase, concentration, first morning 2 52.9 22.0 26.5 14.3 58.0
U- N-Acetyl Glucosaminidase/Creatinine 2 51.1 21.8 25.6 13.9 56.0
B- Neutrophyles, count 5 17.1 32.8 8.55 9.25 23.35
U- Nitrogen, output 1 13.9 24.2 7.0 7.0 18.4
B(Plat)- Norepinephrine 1 9.5 --- 4.8 --- ---
P- Norepinephrine 1 19.5 --- 9.8 --- ---
U- N-Telopeptide type I collagen 3 15.5 37.6 7.75 10.17 22.95
S- N-terminal (NT)-proBNP 2 10.0 16.0 5.0 4.7 13.0
P- Ornithine 1 18.4 54.9 9.2 14.5 29.7
P- Osmolality 1 1.3 1.5 0.7 0.5 1.6
Saliva- Osmolality 1 9.5 35.8 4.8 9.3 17.1
S- Osmolality 1 1.3 1.2 0.7 0.4 1.5
U- Osmolality, first morning 1 28.3 57.9 14.2 16.1 39.5
S- Osteocalcin 5 6.35 30.9 3.18 7.89 13.13
U- Oxalate, concentration, 24h 1 44.0 18.0 22.0 11.9 48.2
U- Oxalate, output, 24h 1 42.5 19.9 21.3 11.7 46.8

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Analyte

Number of papers

Biological
Variation

Desirable
specification
CVw CVg I(%) B(%) TE(%)
B- pCO2 1 4.8 5.3 2.4 1.8 5.7
B- pH [H+] 1 3.5 2.0 1.8 1.0 3.9
B- pH (pH units) 1 0.2 --- 0.1 --- ---
S- Paraoxonase 1 1 13.4 84.0 6.7 21.3 32.3
S- Paraoxonase 1 substrate inhibition (PON 4SI) 1 3.9 80.1 1.9 20.0 23.2
S- Paraoxonase, activity (salt stimulated) 1 8.0 86.4 4.0 21.7 28.3
P- Parathyroid hormone (PTH) 1 25.3 43.4 12.65 12.56 33.43
S- Parathyroid hormone (PTH) 1 25.9 23.8 13.0 8.8 30.2
S- Phenylacetate 1 6.6 25.2 3.3 6.5 12.0
P- Phenylalanine 1 9.5 40.6 4.8 10.4 18.3
S- Phosphate 17 8.15 10.8 4.08 3.38 10.11
U- Phosphate, output, 24h 5 18.0 22.6 9.0 7.2 22.1
Patient- Phosphate tubular reabsorption 1 2.7 3.3 1.4 1.1 3.3
S- Phospholipids 1 6.5 11.1 3.3 3.2 8.6
P- Plasminogen 1 7.7 --- 3.9 --- ---
B- Platelets, count 7 9.1 21.9 4.6 5.9 13.4
B- Platelet distribution wide 2 2.8 --- 1.4 --- ---
B- Plateletcrit 2 11.9 --- 6.0 --- ---
U- Porphobilinogen 1 17.0 31.0 8.5 8.8 22.9
U- Porphyrins (total) 1 40.0 --- 20.0 --- ---
(B)Leuc- Potassium 1 13.6 13.4 6.8 4.8 16.0
S- Potassium 20 4.6 5.6 2.3 1.81 5.61
U- Potassium, output 4 24.4 22.2 12.2 8.2 28.4
S- Prealbumin 1 10.9 19.1 5.5 5.5 14.5
S- Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) 1 12.6 14.0 6.3 4.71 15.1
P- Prolactin 1 39.2 65.1 19.6 19.0 51.34
S- Prolactin 4 23.0 35.0 11.5 10.5 29.4
P- Proline 1 17.0 104.4 8.5 26.4 40.5
P- Prolyl endopeptidase 2 16.8 13.9 8.4 5.5 19.3
S- Properdin factor B 1 9.5 11.2 4.7 3.7 11.5
S- Prostatic specific antigen (PSA) 3 18.1 72.4 9.1 18.7 33.6
S- Protein 18 2.75 4.7 1.38 1.36 3.63
S- Protein, glycated 1 0.9 11.6 0.5 2.9 3.7
U- Protein, output, 24h 2 35.5 23.7 17.8 10.7 40.0
P- Prothrombin time 2 4.0 6.8 2.0 2.0 5.3
U- Pyridinoline 1 19.4 23.6 9.7 7.6 23.6
B- Pyruvate 1 15.2 13.0 7.6 5.0 17.5
S- Receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) 1 14.6 56.5 7.3 14.59 26.63
B- Red cell distribution wide (RDW) 4 3.5 5.7 1.8 1.7 4.6
B- Reticulocyte highly fluorescent, count 1 10.0 62.0 5.0 15.7 24.0
B- Reticulocyte low fluorescent, count 1 1.6 4.9 0.8 1.3 2.6
B- Reticulocyte medium fluorescent, count 1 13.0 33.0 6.5 8.9 19.6
B- Reticulocyte, count 1 11.0 29.0 5.5 7.8 16.8
P- Retinol 1 6.2 21.0 3.1 5.5 10.6
S- Retinol 2 13.6 19.0 6.8 5.8 17.1
S- Rheumatoid factor 1 8.5 24.5 4.3 6.5 13.5

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Analyte Number of papers

Biological
Variation

Desirable
specification
CVw CVg I(%) B(%) TE(%)
S- SCC antigen 1 39.4 35.7 19.7 13.3 45.8
P- S Protein 1 5.8 63.4 2.9 15.9 20.7
P- Selenium 1 12.0 14.0 6.0 4.6 14.5
B- Selenium 1 12.0 12.0 6.0 4.2 14.1
P- Serine 1 12.8 42.8 6.4 11.2 21.7
S- Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) 2 13.05 36.35 6.53 9.66 20.42
(B)Erythr- Sodium 1 1.8 12.4 0.9 3.1 4.6
(B)Leuc- Sodium 1 51.0 36.4 25.5 15.7 57.7
S- Sodium 21 0.6 0.7 0.3 0.23 0.73
B- Sodium Bicarbonate 1 4.0 4.8 2.0 1.6 4.9
S- Sodium Bicarbonate 7 4.8 4.7 2.4 1.7 5.6
Sweat- Sodium Chloride 1 15.0 25.0 7.5 7.3 19.7
U- Sodium, output, 24 h. 4 28.7 16.7 14.4 8.3 32.0
P- Soluble CD163 1 9.0 35.9 4.5 9.3 16.7
U-
Specific gravity 1 0.4 1.0 0.2 0.27 0.60
Semen- Spermatozoa, concentration 1 26.8 56.4 13.4 15.6 37.7
Semen- Spermatozoa, morphology 1 19.6 44.0 9.8 12.0 28.2
Semen- Spermatozoa, progressive motility 1 15.2 32.8 7.6 9.0 21.6
Semen- Spermatozoa, fast progressive motility 1 18.8 51.8 9.4 13.8 29.3
Semen- Spermatozoa, total motility 1 18.4 29.8 9.2 8.8 23.9
Semen- Spermatozoa, vitality 1 10.3 25.8 5.2 6.9 15.4
S- Superoxide dismutase 1 17.1 10.5 8.6 5.0 19.1
(B)Erythr- Superoxide dismutase 1 12.3 4.9 6.2 3.3 13.5
P- Taurine 1 30.6 44.0 15.3 13.4 38.6
P- Testosterone 1 12.6 40.80 6.3 10.68 21.07
S- Testosterone 7 9.25 22.05 4.63 5.98 13.61
Saliva- Testosterone 1 17.3 28.8 8.7 8.4 22.7
U- Testosterone 1 25.0 --- 12.5 --- ---
S- Testosterone, free 3 9.3 --- 4.7 --- ---
U- Testosterone, free 1 51.7 --- 25.9 --- ---
S- Thyroglobulin 2 14.0 39.0 7.0 10.4 21.9
S- Thyroglobulin antibody 1 8.5 82.0 4.3 20.6 27.6
S- Thyroid peroxidase antibody 1 11.3 147.0 5.7 36.9 46.2
P- Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) 1 29.30 48.4 14.65 14.14 38.2
S- Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) 9 19.3 24.6 9.7 7.8 23.7
S- Thyrotropin receptor antibody 1 4.8 --- 2.4 --- ---
S- Thyroxine (T4) 11 4.9 10.9 2.5 3.0 7.0
P- Thyroxine, free (FT4) 1 7.1 9.1 3.55 2.89 8.74
S- Thyroxine, free (FT4) 5 5.7 12.1 2.9 3.3 8.0
S- Thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) 2 0.09 0.06 0.0 0.0 0.1
P- Tirosine 1 10.5 61.0 5.3 15.5 24.1
S- Tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) 1 31.1 63.7 15.6 17.7 43.4
S- Tissue polypeptide specific antigen (TPS) 1 36.1 108.0 18.1 28.5 58.3
U- Total catecolamines, concentration, 24h 1 24.0 32.0 12.0 10.0 29.8
S- Transferrin 5 3.0 4.3 1.5 1.3 3.8
P- Treonine 1 17.9 33.1 9.0 9.4 24.2
S- Triglyceride 31 19.9 32.7 9.95 9.57 25.99
P- Triiodothyronine (T3) 1 9.4 18.5 4.7 5.19 12.94
S- Triiodothyronine (T3) 10 6.9 12.3 3.45 3.53 9.22
S- Triiodothyronine, free (FT3) 4 7.9 17.6 4.0 4.8 11.3
P- Troponin I 1 37.1 179.2 18.55 45.75 76.36
S- Troponin I 5 14.05 63.75 7.03 16.32 27.91
S- Troponin T 1 30.5 90.0 15.3 23.7 48.9
P- Tryptophan 1 22.7 152.6 11.4 38.6 57.3
S- Tumor Necrosis Factor-a (TNF-a)
1 43.0 29.0 21.5 13.0 48.4
S- Urate 16 8.6 17.5 4.3 4.87 11.97
U- Urate, output, 24h 2 16.8 14.4 8.4 5.53 19.39
S- Urea 20 12.1 18.7 6.05 5.57 15.55
U- Urea, output, 24h 4 17.4 25.4 8.7 7.7 22.1
P- Valine 1 10.6 40.1 5.3 10.4 19.1
U- Vanilmandelic Acid concentration, 24h 1 22.2 47.0 11.1 13.0 31.3
S- Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) 1 5.2 16.0 2.6 4.2 8.5
P- Vascular endotelial growth factor 1 14.1 18.1 7.1 5.7 17.4
B- Vascular endotelial growth factor 1 14.3 28.8 7.2 8.0 19.8
S- Vascular endotelial growth factor 1 10.7 47.6 5.4 12.2 21.0
P- Vitamin B1 1 4.8 12.0 2.4 3.2 7.2
B- Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) 1 5.8 10.0 2.9 2.9 7.7
(B)Eryth- Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) 1 6.4 11.0 3.2 3.2 8.5
(B)Eryth- Vitamin B2 status (gluthation reductase activation) 1 5.2 40.0 2.6 10.1 14.4
(B)Eryth- Vitamin B12 1 15.0 69.0 7.5 17.7 30.0
(B)Eryth- Vitamin B6 1 14.0 24.0 7.0 6.9 18.5
B- Vitamin B6 1 20.0 34.0 10.0 9.9 26.4
(B)Eryth- Vitamin E (Tocopherol) 1 7.6 21.0 3.8 5.6 11.9
(B)Eryth- Vitamin K (Phylloquinone) 1 38.0 44.0 19.0 14.5 45.9
S- VLDL Cholesterol 2 27.6 --- 13.8 --- ---
P- Von Willebrand factor 3
2.5 27.3 1.3 6.9 8.9
S- Water 1 3.1 0.1 1.6 0.8 3.3
S- Zeaxanthine 1 34.7 --- 17.4 --- ---
S- Zinc 1 9.3 9.4 4.7 3.3 11.0
P- Zinc 3 11.0 14.0 5.5 4.5 13.5

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